This is a review of an article that I read which helped me learn

more about technology and working with children that have

attention deficit and hyperactivity.

Kang, H. W., Zentall, S. S., & Burton, T. (2007). Use of Images in Instructional Technology for children with attentional difficulties. IDC 2007 Proceedings: Input Technologies, 129-132.

Review written by Sonja Taylor, Summer 2008

Research Question: Will the use of images during mathematics instruction enhance the attention of students and their time on task?Subjects: The subjects for this study were twenty-seven elementary students in second to fourth grade with and without attentional issues.
Setting: The students attended local elementary schools in Indiana and participated in the study in an office or the conference room within their school.

Research Methodology:
The students were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. These groups consisted of no treatment, images-LVC and images-AVC. These students participated in instruction on attributes, terminology, and in calculating the perimeter of geometric shapes and solid figures for 20 minutes. The text information for all three groups remained the same during this study and all particpated in the study using computers. The difference between the other groups were that two groups were provided with images during instruction. The Images-LVC group were provided with 3D pictorial geometric figures and the Images-AVC group were provided additional visual cues, such as information. All subjects were administered a pretest and posttest. Both the pretest and posttest were provided in the form of pencil and paper and they were allowed fifteen minutes to complete the test.
Dependent Variable: Students were instructed in geometry for 20 minutes using computers.
Independent Variable: There were three groups of students: ADHD-inattentive type, ADHD-combined type, and the comparison group. There were three types of conditions that these groups participated in: The no image group, the Images-LVC and the Images-AVC.
Results: In the pretest assessment all three groups were equivalent in geometry when using the computer for instruction. When the questions were broken down in terms of difficulty, all three groups indicated no difference on the easy items or the difficult items on the pretest and posttest. Finally there were repeated factor of 2 levels of difficulty, easy questions presented early in the study and harder questions presented later in the study. When this variable was examined, the Images-AVC group had significant improvement compared to the other two groups. When the data were analyzed comparing the groups and the conditions, the results for the ADHD-I students that participated in the Images-AVC conditions performed significantly better when presented with difficult problems.
Discussions/Implications: Technology when integrated with existing curriculum can improve the performance for students with Attention Deficit. Although this group of students continue to grow each year, techniques used in the classroom by teachers and/or technology does not. This group of students are accommodated for in a variety of way but not specifically for improving their academic performance using technology that is available in all classrooms. Technology is an area that continues to change each and every day and most school districts have the ability to incorporate it into lessons that will benefit the ADHD child.
Analysis: Kang, (2007)et al. expressed that their findings in this study should be considered speculative. This was due to the limitation that prior studies had not been conducted to establish that ADHD students have a harder time learning geometry than their peers without ADHD. However, their results demonstrated that ADHD children benefit from instruction when images are provided along with the general curriculum. Today many classrooms have the "Smartboards" that could allow for this type of instruction to occur for all lessons. This new technology could easily incorporate the authors suggestions to use images for the instruction in geometry. It would be interesting to see if all subjects would benefit from this as well.

Links to additional articles on images and instruction in technology for children with ADHD.
**Technology Applications for children with ADHD**

Technology tools for educators to use with ADHD students

Home link for EDET 735